• Knowledge and hope

    The traditional understanding of knowledge as “justified true belief” is internalist. That is to say, for a belief to count as an item of knowledge, it must actually be believed, and it must actually be true, and it must satisfy a third condition of being “justified”, which is understood as a state of mind. Justification…

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  • Are we lucky to be alive?

    Most things of value in life depend on luck. But what is it, exactly, to be lucky? I think an agent is lucky when he wants something (i.e. he has a goal) and then passes through a sort of “trial” in which getting what he wants is statistically unlikely, or at least not guaranteed. If…

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  • Individualism

    It’s remarkable how individualism has come to be identified with right-wing politics. By “individualism” I mean: love of individuality; high regard for the freedom and welfare of individuals; respect for the interests of sentient beings rather than for non-sentient political abstractions; and the expectation that we can understand society by looking at how its constituent…

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