• Thoughts on oughts

    [I’ve succumbed to the urge to use italics in this, although my original aim was to express these thoughts as a thread of Tweets. — Jeremy] 1There is a variety of different kinds of ought. For example, rationally, “anyone who believes that p and that p implies q ought to believe that q”. Prudentially, “we…

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  • Carol of Birds, Beasts and Men

    Christus natus est! the cock Christ is born Carols on the morning dark. Quando? croaks the raven stiff When? Freezing on the broken cliff. Hoc nocte, replies the crow This night Beating high above the snow. Ubi? Ubi? booms the ox Where? From its cavern in the rocks. Bethlehem, then bleats the sheep Huddled on…

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  • Knowledge and hope

    The traditional understanding of knowledge as “justified true belief” is internalist. That is to say, for a belief to count as an item of knowledge, it must actually be believed, and it must actually be true, and it must satisfy a third condition of being “justified”, which is understood as a state of mind. Justification…

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